NX 977-747 Dumfriesshire Scotland
Dumfries Castle is a 12th century earthwork motte and bailey fortress, founded by King William the Lyon. In the mid 13th century, King Alexander III founded the stone castle, which was encased by a great wet ditch. Occupied by the English from 1298, a new wooden palisade was built but it was still briefly taken by Robert the Bruce in 1306, after which the castle was strengthened with a keep. After the English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn, the castle was obliged to surrender, only to be destroyed in 1357 to gain the release of King David II. Standing on high ground, against the steep slope formed by the River Nith, landscaping makes it hard to determine the complete layout of this large and historically interesting fortification. Two other castles were built to defend the town and they both stand on the western bank, sited directly opposite is the Mote of Troqueer and two miles north is Kirkhill Mote. 5 miles south-east is Isle Tower and 5 miles north-east is Torthorwald Castle.